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Purpose of this Practice Guide - Need for this Practice Guide - PMI’s Increased Focus on Business Analysis - Intended Audience for the Guide - What is Business Analysis? - Who Performs Business Analysis? - Skillset and Expertise Needed for the Business Analysis Role - How Organizations Implement Business Analysis - The Relationship between the Project Manager, Business Analyst and Other Role - The Need to Build the Relationships - Definition of Requirement - Who has the Responsibility for the Requirements? - Requirement Types - The Structure of the Practice Guide - Section 2 on Needs Assessment - Section 3 on Business Analysis Planning - Section 4 on Requirement Elicitation and Analysis - Section 5 on Traceability and Monitoring - Section 6 on Solution Evaluation.


Overview of this Section - Why Perform Needs Assessment - Identify Problem or Opportunity - Identify Stakeholders - Investigate the Problem or Opportunity - Gather Relevant Data to Evaluate the Situation - Draft the Situation Statement - Obtain Stakeholder Approval for the Situation Statement - Assess Current State of the Organization - Assess Organizational Goals and Objectives - Goals and Objectives - SMART Goals and Objectives - SWOT Analysis - Relevant Criteria - Perform Root Cause Analysis on the Situation - Five Whys - Cause-and-Effect Diagrams - Determine Required Capabilities Needed to the Address the - Situation - Capability Table - Affinity Diagram – Benchmarking - Assess Current Capabilities of the Organization - Identify Gaps in Organizational Capabilities - Recommend Action to Address Business Needs - Include a High-Level Approach for Adding Capabilities - Provide Alternative Options for Satisfying the Business Need - Identify Constraints, Assumptions, and Risks for Each Option – Constraints – Assumptions – Risks - Assess Feasibility and Organizational Impacts of Each Option - Operational Feasibility - Technology/System Feasibility - Cost-Effectiveness Feasibility - Time Feasibility - Assess Factors - Recommend the Most Viable Option - Weighted Ranks - Conduct Cost-Benefit Analysis for Recommended Option - Payback Period (PBP) - Return on Investment (ROI) - Internal Rate of Return (IRR) - Net Present Value (NPV) - Assemble the Business Case - Value of the Business Case.


Overview of this Section - The Importance of Business Analysis Training – Rationale - Business Analysis Training and Project Management Planning - Conduct or Refine the Stakeholder Analysis - Techniques for Identifying Stakeholders – Brainstorming - Organizational Charts - Determine Stakeholder Characteristics – Attitude – Complexity - Culture – Experience - Level of Influence - Location and Availability - Techniques for Grouping or Analyzing Stakeholders - Job Analysis - Personal Analysis - Assemble the Stakeholder Analysis Results - Create the Business Analysis Plan - Business Analysis Plan Vs Requirements Management Plan - What to include in the Business Analysis Plan - Determining the Proper Level of Detail - Understand the Project Context - Understand How the Project Life Cycle Influences Planning Decisions - Ensure the Team is Trained on the Project Life Cycle - Leverage Past Experiences When Planning - Lessons Learned – Retrospectives - Plan for Elicitation - Strategies for Sequencing Elicitation Activities - Plan for Analysis - Define the Requirements Prioritization Process - Define the Traceability Approach - Define the Communication Approach - Define the Decision-Making Process - Define the Requirements Verification and Validation Processes - Define the Requirements Change Process - Define the Solution Evaluation Process - Plan the Business Analysis Work - Determine Who Plans the Business Analysis Effort - Build the Business Analysis Work Plan - Identify the Deliverables - Determine the Tasks and Activities - Determine the Timing and Sequencing of Tasks - Determine the Roles and Responsibilities - Identifying the Resources - Estimate the Work - Assemble the Business Analysis Work Plan - Document the Rationale for the Business Analysis Approach - Review the Business Analysis Plan with Key Stakeholders - Obtain Approval of the Business Analysis Plan.


Purpose of this Section - What it means to Elicit Information - Elicitation is More than Requirements Collection or Gathering - Importance of Eliciting Information - Plan for Elicitation - Develop the Elicitation - Finding Information - Techniques for Eliciting Information - Sequencing the Elicitation Activities - Prepare for Elicitation - Determine the Objectives - Determine the Participants - Determine the Questions for the Session - Conduct Elicitation Activities – Introduction – Body - Types of Questions - How to Ask the “Right” Questions - Listening – Close - Follow-Up - Elicitation Techniques – Brainstorming - Document Analysis - Facilitated Workshops - Focus Groups – Interviews - Observation – Prototyping - Questionnaires and Surveys - Document Outputs from Elicitation Activities - Complete Elicitation - Elicitation Issues and Challenges - Analyze Requirements - Plan for Analysis -Analysis Defined - Thinking Ahead about Analysis - What to Analyze - Model and Refine Requirements - Description of Models - Purpose of Models - Categories of Models - Selection of Model - Use Models to Refine Requirements - Modeling Languages - Scope Models - Goal Model and Business Objective Model - Ecosystem Map - Context Diagram - Feature Model - Use Case Diagram - Process Models - Process Flow - Use Case - User Story - Rule Models - Business Rules Catalog - Decision Tree and Decision Table - Data Models - Entity Relationship Diagram - Data Flow Diagrams - Data Dictionary - State Table and State Diagram - Interface Models - Report Table - System Interface Table- User Interface Flow - Wireframes and Display-Action-Response - Document the Solution Requirements - Why Documentation is Important - Business Requirements Documents - The Solution Documentation – Requirements – Categorization - Requirements Specification - Documenting Assumptions - Documenting Constraints - Guidelines for Writing Requirements - Functional Requirements - Prioritizing Requirements - Prioritization Schemes - Technical Requirements Specification - Documenting with User Case - Documenting with User Stories - Backlog Items - Validate Requirements - The Concept of Continual Conformation - Requirements Walkthrough - Verify Requirements - Peer Review – Inspection - Approval Sessions - Resolve Requirements-Related Conflicts – Delphi – Multivoting - Weighted Ranking.


Overview of this Section – Traceability - What is Traceability? - Benefits of Tracing Requirements - The Traceability Matrix - Requirements Attributes - Traceability Matrix Hierarchy - Relationships and Dependencies – Subsets - Implementation Dependency - Benefit or Value Dependency - Approving Requirements - Work Authorization System - Approval Levels - Baselining Approved Requirements - What is a Requirements Baseline? - Relationship of Requirements Baseline, Product Scope, and Project Scope - Maintaining the Product Backlog - Monitoring Requirements Using a Traceability Matrix - Benefits of Using Traceability to Monitor Requirements -The Requirements Life Cycle - Managing Changes to Requirements - Change Management as it Relates to Business Analysis - Change Control Tools and Techniques - Configuration Management System (CMS) - Version Control System (VCS) - Impact Analysis - Impact on the Requirements Baseline - Impact on Whether a Proposed Change Conflicts with other – Requirements - Impact on Business Analysis - Impact on Project Management - Recommending a Course of Action - Controlling Changes Related to Defects.


Overview of this Section - Purpose of Solution Evaluation - Recommended Mindset for Evaluation - Evaluate Early and Often - Treat Requirements Analysis, Traceability, Testing and Evaluation as Complementary Activities - Evaluate with the Context of Usage and Value in Mind - Conform Expected Values for Software Solutions - Plan for Evaluation of the Solution - Determine What to Evaluate - Consider the Business Goals and Objectives - Consider Key Performance Indicators - Consider Additional Evaluation Metrics and Evaluation Acceptance Criteria - Project Metrics as Input to the Evaluation of the Solution - Customer Metrics - Sales and Marketing Metrics - Operational Metrics and Assessments – Functionality - Confirm that the Organization Can Continue with Evaluation - When and How to Validate Solution Results - Surveys and Focus Groups - Results from Exploratory Testing and User Acceptance Testing - Results from Day-in-the-Life (DITL) Testing - Results from Integration Testing - Expected vs. Actual Results for Functionality - Expected vs. Actual Results for Non-functional Requirements - Outcome Measurements and Financial Calculation of Benefits - Evaluate Acceptance Criteria and Address Defects - Comparison of Expected vs. Actual Results - Examine Tolerance Ranges and Exact Numbers - Log and Address Defects - Facilitate the GO/No-Go Decision - Obtain Signoff the Solution - Evaluate the Long-Term Performance of the Solution - Determine Metrics - Obtain Metrics/Measure Performance - Analyze Results - Assess Limitations of the Solution and Organization - Recommended Approach to Improve Solution Performance - Solution Replacement/Phase out.